How to be informed. Most articles, publications, and articles are inaccurate. Read with skepticism and ask a lot of questions.

A Beginner’s Guide to Reading Scien­tific Research

Scien­tific journal arti­cles can be incred­ibly intim­i­dating to read, even for other scien­tists. Heck, I have a Ph.D. in a research science and have authored scien­tific papers, but some­times I look at a research report outside my field of study and just go, “Nope, can’t deci­pher this.”

Learning to read them is an impor­tant skill, however, in today’s envi­ron­ment of what I call “research sensa­tion­alism.” This is where the popular media gets hold of a scien­tific research report and blows the find­ings WAY out of propor­tion, usually while misrep­re­senting what the researchers actu­ally did and/or found. You know what I’m talking about.

Read full article: Marks Daily Apple, “A Begin­ner’s Guide to Reading Scien­tific Research”

Level 1 — Best Support” November 2012

Prac­tice­Wise, the com­pany that main­tains the Amer­i­can Acad­emy of Pedi­atrics “Evidence-based Child and Ado­les­cent Psycho-social Inter­ven­tions” ele­vated biofeed­back to “Level 1 — Best Sup­port” as an inter­ven­tion for Atten­tion & Hyper­ac­tiv­ity Behav­iors. Stud­ies influ­enc­ing the deci­sion included:

  • Beau­re­gard, M., & Levesque, J. (2006). Func­tional mag­netic res­o­nance imag­ing inves­ti­ga­tion of the effects of neu­ro­feed­back train­ing on neural bases of selec­tive atten­tion and response inhi­bi­tion in chil­dren with atten­tion-deficit/hy­per­ac­tivity dis­or­der. Applied Psy­chol­ogy and Biofeed­back, 31, 3–20.
  • Gevensleben, H., Holl, B., Albrecht, B., Vogel, C., Schlamp, D., et al. (2009). Is neu­ro­feed­back an effi­ca­cious treat­ment for ADHD?: A ran­dom­ized con­trolled clin­i­cal trial. Jour­nal of Child Psy­chol­ogy and Psy­chi­a­try, 50, 780–789.
  • Levesque, J., Beau­re­gard, M., & Men­sour, B. (2006). Effect of neu­ro­feed­back train­ing on the neural sub­strates of selec­tive atten­tion in chil­dren with atten­tion deficit/hyperactivity dis­or­der: A func­tional mag­netic res­o­nance imag­ing study. Neu­ro­science Let­ters, 394, 216–221.
  • Omizo, M. M., & Michael, W. B. (1982). Biofeed­back-induced relax­ation train­ing and impul­siv­ity, atten­tion to task, and locus of con­trol among hyper­ac­tive boys. Jour­nal of Learn­ing Dis­abil­i­ties, 15, 414–416.
  • Rivera, E., & Omizo, M. M. (1980). The effects of relax­ation and biofeed­back on atten­tion to task and impul­siv­ity among male hyper­ac­tive chil­dren. The Excep­tional Child, 27, 41–51.


Comprehensive Neurofeedback Bibliography, by D. Corydon Hammond, Ph.D/Professor, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Utah School of Medicine

Frank H. Duffy, M.D., Professor and Pedi­atric Neurol­o­gist at Harvard Medical School, stated in an edito­rial in the January, 2000 issue of the journal Clin­ical Elec­troen­cephalog­raphy that the schol­arly liter­a­ture suggests that neuro­feed­back should play a major ther­a­peutic role in many diffi­cult areas. “In my opinion, if any medica­tion had demon­strated such a wide spec­trum of effi­cacy it would be univer­sally accepted and widely used” (p. v). “It is a field to be taken seri­ously by all” (p. vii).

View the bibli­og­raphy here


A Decade of EEG Theta/Beta Ratio Research in ADHD: A Meta-Analysis

Martijn Arns, C. Keith Conners and Helena C. Kraemer — Journal of Atten­tion Disor­ders, published online October 19, 2012

Read the research here — Journal of Atten­tion Disor­ders


What Learning Theories Can Teach Us in Designing Neurofeedback Treatment

Ute Strehl — Hypoth­esis and Theory Article, Fron­tiers in Human Neuro­science, Insti­tute of Medical Psychology and Behav­ioral Neuro­bi­ology, Univer­sity of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany, published November 6, 2014

Read the Hypoth­esis and Theory Article here — Fron­tiers in Human Neuro­science


Tinnitus: neurobiological substrates

Jos J. Egger­mont — DDT, Volume 10, Number 19, October 2005

Read the Review Article here — Drug Discovery Today


Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) as a Method for Treatment of Tinnitus and Hyperacusis Patients

Pawel J. Jastre­boff, Margaret M. Jastre­boff — Tinnitus and Hyper­a­cusis Center, Depart­ment of Otolaryn­gology, Emory Univer­sity School of Medi­cine, Atlanta, Georgia — J Am Acad Audiol 11: 162–177 (2000)

Read the Paper here — Journal of the Amer­ican Academy of Audi­ology


Advances in the neurobiology of hearing disorders: Recent
developments regarding the basis of tinnitus and hyperacusis

Marlies Knipper, Pim Van Dijk, Isidro Nunes, Lukas Ru¨ ttiger, Ulrike Zimmer­mann — Progress in Neuro­bi­ology 111(2013) 17–33

Read the Article here — Progress in Neuro­bi­ology


Hyperacusis and Misophonia: The Lesser-Known Siblings of Tinnitus

Paula Schwartz, Au.D., Jason Leyen­decker, Au.D., and Megan Conlon — Minnesota Medi­cine, November 2011

Read the Article here — Minnesota Medi­cine



Wikipedia 2012

See the Defi­n­i­tion here — Wikipedia


The Science Behind Misophonia, and Possible Treatments

By life­with­miso­phonia,  February, 2012

Read the Blog Article here — life­with­miso­phonia


Selective Sound Sensitivity Syndrome (Misophonia) in a Patient With Tourette Syndrome

Matthew Neal, M.D. and Andrea E. Cavanna, M.D., Ph.D — The Michael Trimble Neuropsy­chi­atry Research Group, BSMHFT, and Univer­sity of Birm­ingham, U.K. — J Neuropsy­chi­atry Clin Neurosci 25:1, Winter 2013

Read the Letter here — neuro.psychiatry online


When selective audiovisual stimuli become unbearable: a case series on pediatric misophonia

Patricia L Johnson, Troy A Webber, Monica S Wu, Adam B Lewin, Tanya K Murphy and Eric A Storch — Neuropsy­chi­atry, December 2013

Read the Report here — Neuropsy­chi­atry


Misophonia Activation Scale


See the Assess­ment Scale here


Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Hyperacusis: A randomized controlled

Linda Jüris, Gerhard Ander­sson, Hans Chris­tian Larsen, Lisa Ekselius — Behav­iour Research and Therapy 54 (2014) 30e37

Read the Study here — Behavior Research and Therapy


Imaging Brain Function in People with Tinnitus


Tinnitus: Psychological Distress and Treatment

By Jennifer Melcher, Craig Formby, and Laurence McKenna- Audi­ology Today, July/Aug 2011

Read the Arti­cles here — Audi­ology Today