How to be informed. Most articles, publications, and articles are inaccurate. Read with skepticism and ask a lot of questions.

A Beginner’s Guide to Reading Scientific Research

Scientific journal articles can be incredibly intimidating to read, even for other scientists. Heck, I have a Ph.D. in a research science and have authored scientific papers, but sometimes I look at a research report outside my field of study and just go, “Nope, can’t decipher this.”

Learning to read them is an important skill, however, in today’s environment of what I call “research sensationalism.” This is where the popular media gets hold of a scientific research report and blows the findings WAY out of proportion, usually while misrepresenting what the researchers actually did and/or found. You know what I’m talking about.

Read full article: Marks Daily Apple, “A Beginner’s Guide to Reading Scientific Research”

“Level 1 – Best Support” November 2012

Prac­tice­Wise, the com­pany that main­tains the Amer­i­can Acad­emy of Pedi­atrics “Evidence-based Child and Ado­les­cent Psycho-social Inter­ven­tions” ele­vated biofeed­back to “Level 1 — Best Sup­port” as an inter­ven­tion for Atten­tion & Hyper­ac­tiv­ity Behav­iors. Stud­ies influ­enc­ing the deci­sion included:

  • Beau­re­gard, M., & Levesque, J. (2006). Func­tional mag­netic res­o­nance imag­ing inves­ti­ga­tion of the effects of neu­ro­feed­back train­ing on neural bases of selec­tive atten­tion and response inhi­bi­tion in chil­dren with attention-deficit/hyperactivity dis­or­der. Applied Psy­chol­ogy and Biofeed­back, 31, 3–20.
  • Gevensleben, H., Holl, B., Albrecht, B., Vogel, C., Schlamp, D., et al. (2009). Is neu­ro­feed­back an effi­ca­cious treat­ment for ADHD?: A ran­dom­ized con­trolled clin­i­cal trial. Jour­nal of Child Psy­chol­ogy and Psy­chi­a­try, 50, 780–789.
  • Levesque, J., Beau­re­gard, M., & Men­sour, B. (2006). Effect of neu­ro­feed­back train­ing on the neural sub­strates of selec­tive atten­tion in chil­dren with atten­tion deficit/hyperactivity dis­or­der: A func­tional mag­netic res­o­nance imag­ing study. Neu­ro­science Let­ters, 394, 216–221.
  • Omizo, M. M., & Michael, W. B. (1982). Biofeedback-induced relax­ation train­ing and impul­siv­ity, atten­tion to task, and locus of con­trol among hyper­ac­tive boys. Jour­nal of Learn­ing Dis­abil­i­ties, 15, 414–416.
  • Rivera, E., & Omizo, M. M. (1980). The effects of relax­ation and biofeed­back on atten­tion to task and impul­siv­ity among male hyper­ac­tive chil­dren. The Excep­tional Child, 27, 41–51.


Comprehensive Neurofeedback Bibliography, by D. Corydon Hammond, Ph.D/Professor, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Utah School of Medicine

Frank H. Duffy, M.D., Professor and Pediatric Neurologist at Harvard Medical School, stated in an editorial in the January, 2000 issue of the journal Clinical Electroencephalography that the scholarly literature suggests that neurofeedback should play a major therapeutic role in many difficult areas. “In my opinion, if any medication had demonstrated such a wide spectrum of efficacy it would be universally accepted and widely used” (p. v). “It is a field to be taken seriously by all” (p. vii).

View the bibliography here


A Decade of EEG Theta/Beta Ratio Research in ADHD: A Meta-Analysis

Martijn Arns, C. Keith Conners and Helena C. Kraemer – Journal of Attention Disorders, published online October 19, 2012

Read the research here – Journal of Attention Disorders


What Learning Theories Can Teach Us in Designing Neurofeedback Treatment

Ute Strehl – Hypothesis and Theory Article, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany, published November 6, 2014

Read the Hypothesis and Theory Article here – Frontiers in Human Neuroscience


Tinnitus: neurobiological substrates

Jos J. Eggermont – DDT, Volume 10, Number 19, October 2005

Read the Review Article here – Drug Discovery Today


Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) as a Method for Treatment of Tinnitus and Hyperacusis Patients

Pawel J. Jastreboff, Margaret M. Jastreboff – Tinnitus and Hyperacusis Center, Department of Otolaryngology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia – J Am Acad Audiol 11: 162–177 (2000)

Read the Paper here – Journal of the American Academy of Audiology


Advances in the neurobiology of hearing disorders: Recent
developments regarding the basis of tinnitus and hyperacusis

Marlies Knipper, Pim Van Dijk, Isidro Nunes, Lukas Ru¨ ttiger, Ulrike Zimmermann – Progress in Neurobiology 111(2013) 17-33

Read the Article here – Progress in Neurobiology


Hyperacusis and Misophonia: The Lesser-Known Siblings of Tinnitus

Paula Schwartz, Au.D., Jason Leyendecker, Au.D., and Megan Conlon – Minnesota Medicine, November 2011

Read the Article here – Minnesota Medicine



Wikipedia 2012

See the Definition here – Wikipedia


The Science Behind Misophonia, and Possible Treatments

By lifewithmisophonia,  February, 2012

Read the Blog Article here – lifewithmisophonia


Selective Sound Sensitivity Syndrome (Misophonia) in a Patient With Tourette Syndrome

Matthew Neal, M.D. and Andrea E. Cavanna, M.D., Ph.D – The Michael Trimble Neuropsychiatry Research Group, BSMHFT, and University of Birmingham, U.K. – J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 25:1, Winter 2013

Read the Letter here – neuro.psychiatry online


When selective audiovisual stimuli become unbearable: a case series on pediatric misophonia

Patricia L Johnson, Troy A Webber, Monica S Wu, Adam B Lewin, Tanya K Murphy and Eric A Storch – Neuropsychiatry, December 2013

Read the Report here – Neuropsychiatry


Misophonia Activation Scale

See the Assessment Scale here


Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Hyperacusis: A randomized controlled

Linda Jüris, Gerhard Andersson, Hans Christian Larsen, Lisa Ekselius – Behaviour Research and Therapy 54 (2014) 30e37

Read the Study here – Behavior Research and Therapy


Imaging Brain Function in People with Tinnitus


Tinnitus: Psychological Distress and Treatment

By Jennifer Melcher, Craig Formby, and Laurence McKenna- Audiology Today, July/Aug 2011

Read the Articles here – Audiology Today